Our world of science would be nowhere near to its current state without physics. Investigating matter and energy, revealing the causes of phenomena, developing technologies based on the principles of the field — none of it would be possible without physicists. Forward progress in the field is fueled by researchers. Their topics of interest range from light theory to string theory and quantum mechanics to cosmology and more. While it is hard to select just ten outstanding physicists, this list highlights the work of those who have made astounding contributions in their field.

## Cosmological and Phenomenological Physicists

Physical cosmology and phenomenology are branches in physics that deal with universal dynamics. Physicists in these areas aim to expand theoretical knowledge and experimental data.

### Outstanding Physicist: Lene Vestergaard Hau, Ph.D.

At Harvard University, Lene Vestergaard Hau is a Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics and Applied Physics. She is also a member of the Biophysics Program faculty. Her most notable contribution to contemporary physics is stopping light. She and her lab team started by slowing the pulse of light to only 15 miles an hour, and through continued efforts, they stopped the pulse altogether. It was a momentous breakthrough that represents a new paradigm for information processing.

She earned her graduate degrees from the University of Aarhus in Denmark. Currently, she is conducting interdisciplinary work to understand more about photosynthesis fundamentals. This current research may help develop new schemes for biofuel production. Hau’s work with cold atoms and nanoscale systems shows promise for scientists' ability to study the fundamentals of single-atom entities.

For her work in physics, she has received several awards. Her collection includes the Carlsberg Foundation’s Research Award from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters and the “World Dane 2010” honor. Furthermore, Hau is part of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She was also selected to be a National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellow by the United States Department of Defense. Ultimately, her research is important for advancements in the field of quantum encryption and quantum computing.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Lene Vestergaard Hau.

### Renowned Physicist: Alan H. Guth, Ph.D.

Alan Guth is a Victor F. Weisskopf Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is known best for Inflationary Theory, a modification of the Big Bang Theory. Additionally, he famously researches particle physics and cosmology.

Interestingly, Guth skipped his senior year of high school and went on to earn his B.S. and Ph.D. from MIT in the area of Physics. His current work includes extrapolating density fluctuations and investigating inflation in “brane world” models within string theory.

In 2014, Guth, along with his colleagues, won the Kavli Prize for creating groundbreaking research on the theory of cosmic inflation. He solved the Monopole Problem that troubled the physics community for years. Moreover, this solution was a key piece to fully understanding the Big Bang Theory. This outstanding physicist's research changed the way many physicists thought about the universe, laying the foundation for many advances in his field.

He was also the inaugural recipient of the Fundamental Physics Prize and received several other awards. Among them are the Eddington Medal and the Issac Newton Medal. In addition to his research and teaching, Guth is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Alan H. Guth.

### Ground-breaking Physicist: Nima Arkani-Hamed, Ph.D.

In addition to being a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, Nima Arkani-Hamed is a particle physics phenomenologist leading the way for outstanding physics. Moreover, he is Director of The Center for Future High Energy Physics in China. His key contributions to the field of physics include proposing new theories that can be tested via experimental processes, namely at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland.

Arkani-Hamed earned his B.S. from the University of Toronto. He then went on to receive his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. Early in his career while on the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley, his group developed little Higgs theories, a major contribution to the field. Now, his main research interests include high-energy physics, string theory, and cosmology. Ultimately, he seeks to understand the link between the theoretical and experimental.

He won the Phi Beta Kappa Award for Teaching Excellence. Additionally, Arkani-Hamed was asked to be on the selection committee for the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics. Also, he was an inaugural awardee of the Fundamental Physics Prize and went on to win the Sackler Prize, the Gribov Medal, and the INFN-Pisa Gamberini Prize, to name a few in his collection. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences, as well.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Nima Arkani-Hamed.

## Theoretical Physicists

This branch of physics uses abstractions of objects and systems in conjunction with mathematical models to explain natural phenomena. Moreover, it allows scientists to predict these phenomena. Of note, there are few experiments in the field intended to prove the theories at hand; mathematical modeling is more important in extending these theories.

### Outstanding Physicist: Juan Maldacena, Ph.D.

Most famous for his discovery of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence (AdS/CFT correspondence), Juan Maldacena is a theoretical physicist. This emerged from the realization of the holographic principle. Furthermore, his work on the black hole firewall paradox countered a contemporary theory within just a year of its publication.

Maldacena received his Ph.D. from Princeton University, where he now teaches as the Carl P. Feinberg Professor in Theoretical Physics. His work revolutionized the way contemporary physicists study and perceive string theory. He continues to make scientific strides in understanding the connection between black holes and quantum field theories. Additionally, he seeks to build an understanding of the connection between string theory and cosmology.

Beyond his service to Princeton, he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. His work earned him the St. Albert Award, the Albert Einstein Medal, the Lorentz Medal, and the Fundamental Physics Prize, to name a few. Of note, the Lorentz Medal is only awarded once every four years to a researcher who makes a groundbreaking contribution to theoretical physics — only 21 scientists have won the medal. In summary, Maldacena’s discoveries about black holes set the foundation to better understand how black holes in space relate to the planets around them.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Juan Maldacena.

### Ground-breaking Physicist: Ashoke Sen, Ph.D.

A string theory researcher, Ashoke Sen is a physicist at the Harish-Chandra Research Institute in Allahabad, India. He is most famous for his breakthrough work on strong-weak duality (S-duality). This work allows calculations in theoretical physics to be more understandable. Additionally, S-duality helped contemporary physicists determine M-Theory in revealing the five determined versions of string theory were not, in fact, distinct nor mutually exclusive.

Sen received his undergraduate degree from the University of Calcutta, his graduate degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, and then his Ph.D. from Stony Brook University in New York. Additionally, he won the Fellowship of the Royal Society after being named by the famed physicist Stephen Hawking.

His contributions to the field of physics include, but are not limited to, the study of various physical properties of black holes and groundbreaking developments in string perturbation theory. String theory attempts to unify both quantum mechanics and gravity, and Sen has made great strides in understanding how to better unite the two.

For his work, he was awarded the Dirac Medal, the Fundamental Physics Prize, the Infosys Prize, and the TWAS Prize, to name a few. He also joined the National Institute of Science Education and Research in India as an honorary fellow. Moreover, he is a Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and holds an honorary doctorate at both Jadavpur University and IIT Bombay.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Ashoke Sen.

### Nobel Laureate: Gerardus “Gerard” ’t Hooft, Ph.D.

Gerard ’t Hooft is a theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. Most notable in his biography is that he is a Nobel Laureate. In 1999, he and Martinus J.G. Veltman were co-awarded for their work in quantum physics for their development of electroweak interaction in particle physics.

Hooft received his degrees from Utrecht University in the Netherlands. He is truly a physicist of the world having spent time researching at labs throughout the world. Additionally, his research focuses on gauge theory, black holes, quantum gravity, and fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. Moreover, it was a key component in unraveling the mysteries and understanding the workings of monopoles and instantons.

Beyond his Nobel Prize, Hooft has received many honors for his work in the field of physics. Some of these include the Wolf Prize, the Lorentz Medal, the Spinozapremie, the Franklin Medal. He was also asked to be an officer in the French Legion of Honor. Moreover, he is a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the French Academie des Sciences, the Institute of Physics, the American National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Due to his groundbreaking research, Hooft holds a multitude of honorary doctorates and honorary professorships.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Gerard ‘t Hooft.

### Awarded Physicist: Shamit Kachru, Ph.D.

In addition to teaching at Stanford University, Shamit Kachru is the Wells Family Director of the Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics. He is also the Stanford Physics Department Chair. Kachru's current research takes a more interdisciplinary study approach to ideas of theoretical physics. As such, it raises questions in evolutionary biology and eco-evolutionary dynamics.

He earned his bachelor’s degree from Harvard and his Ph.D. from Princeton University. His early research focused on exploring everything physics. Additionally, he published on string theory to quantum field theory, seeking an understanding of their impact on cosmology, condensed matter physics, and elementary particle theory.

In addition to his roles at Standford, Kachru is on the Editorial Board of Research in Mathematical Sciences and the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Perimeter Institute. He previously served on the Advisory Board of Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP) at UC Santa Barbara and a Member of the Aspen Center for Physics in Colorado. Also, he was an editor of the *Journal of High Energy Physics.*

His awards include the Simons Investigator Award, the SQuaRE Grant from the American Institute of Mathematics, the Outstanding Young Investigator Award, and the Began Memorial Award. In short, Kachru is best known for his research on flux compactifications and their ability to stabilize the extra dimensions of string theory.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Shamit Kachru.

### Pioneering Physicist: Andrei Linde, Ph.D.

At Stanford University, Andrei Linde is a theoretical physicist and Harald Trap Friis Professor of Physics. He is most famous for pioneering the theory of cosmic inflation, redefining the understanding of the Big Bang Theory. Later, he developed another version of the theory called “New Inflation,” which fixed problems in the original inflation theory. Linde is also famous for his work on the inflationary multiverse and eternal chaotic inflation.

He received his undergraduate degree from Moscow State University and his Ph.D. from the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow. His theoretical contributions to cosmology are expansive and include those mentioned above as well as current endeavors. These include research on the theory of dark energy, exploring the global structure and the fate of the universe, quantum cosmology, and the cosmological constraints on the properties of elementary particles.

Of note, Linde received the Fundamental Physics Prize and the Kavli Prize for his work. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His research is fundamental to physicists' application of and research into string theory. Moreover, his findings impact the implications of string theory on life and the universe as a whole.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Andrei Linde.

## Mathematical Physicists

This branch of physics utilizes mathematical models to solve problems in physics. In developing different applications through these models, scientists are able to develop theories and proofs further.

### Influential Physicist: Edward Witten, Ph.D.

At Princeton University, Edward Witten teaches mathematical physics. Within the university's Institute for Advanced Study, he is the Charles Simonyi Professor at the School of Natural Sciences. Moreover, he developed M-Theory, unifying all congruous superstring theory versions. His other notable research includes string theory, quantum gravity, and supersymmetric quantum field theories.

He earned his bachelor’s degree from Brandeis University in Massachusetts and graduate degrees from Princeton University. Of note, his work on M-Theory came to light in 1995. He presented the topics at a conference, theorizing that the five versions of string theory were different limits of a single theory.

Interestingly, Witten was the first physicist to win the Fields Medal, awarded by the International Mathematical Union. The outstanding physicist also won on the basis of his unique physics contributions with strong mathematical implications. Additionally, he is a recipient of several other recognitions. He is a fellow of the American Mathematical Society, and he won the MacArthur Grant, the Nemmers Prize in Mathematics, and the National Medal of Science, to name a few.

Witten was also featured in *Time* as one of the 100 Most Influential People in 2004. His research significantly influenced theoretical physics, setting new groundwork upon which further research can grow.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Edward Witten.

### Outstanding Physicist: Nathan Seiberg, Ph.D.

As a theoretical physicist at Princeton University, Nathan Seiberg teaches mathematical physics. His research focuses primarily on string theory, quantum field theory, and particle physics. Similarly, his most notable contributions to the field redefined many applications of physics and mathematics within quantum field theories.

A dual citizen in Israel and the US, Siberg earned his undergraduate degree from Tel Aviv University and his Ph.D. from the Weizmann Institute of Science. He is also an integral member of the Institue for Advanced Study at Princeton having begun work there in 1982. Additionally, Seiberg's work with Edward Witten (another contemporary physicist on this list), Seiberg-Witten Theory, simplified the classification of four-dimensional manifolds.

For his research, Seiberg is the recipient of several recognitions. These include the Oskar Klein Medal, the MacArthur Fellowship, the Fundamental Physics Prize, the Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics, and the Dirac Medal of the ICTP. His interdisciplinary research approach led to many unexpected discoveries have applications in both mathematics, along with string theory and quantum field theories.

Seiberg’s contributions to the field of theoretical physics made revolutionary steps toward refining fundamental physics. Moreover, his groundbreaking work will set the foundation for years of research to come.

Outstanding Physicist: Read about Nathan Seiberg.